In this lesson we’ll review command forms. You can’t be functional in a language until you can give someone an order (politely, of course!). The easiest way to start is to remember one phrase, and then add an infinitive (no conjugations!). When speaking formally to one person, Hágame el favor de + infinitive. You’re literally asking someone to do you the favor of doing something. Remember to attach object pronouns on the end of the infinitive. Hágame el favor de pagar la cuenta. Hágame el favor de pagarla. In using the informal “tú”, adapt to – Hazme el favor de + inf. When speaking to more than one person – Háganme el favor de +. This is an easy, grammatically correct form. You’ll want to move on to a more complex level, however, as you progress. With these forms, you need to sound them out, think them often, and think a whole package of sounds. There are logical rules which apply, but there seem to be a lot of them. To simplify – when speaking to a “tú” person, just think in your mind that you’re more formal when you’re bossy, so use the Ud. form of the regular present tense. For instance, when talking to your best friend, you say – Pablito, habla español, por favor! Add pronouns at the end – Háblame español, por favor. The irregular forms are most often short one syllable words (faster to order around your children!): Haz (do) Pon (put) Di (say, tell) Ten (have) Ven (venir). Practice these in combinations such as: – Hazlo ahora! Ponlo aquí. Dime la verdad. – Ten cuidado! – Ven aquí! If you’re talking to an “usted”, think switchy endings. If it’s an AR verb, but an E on the end of it. If it’s ER or IR, put an A on the end of it. Señor, (hablar) hable español, por favor. Señora, (pagar) pague la cuenta (note that the spelling has to change somewhat to accommodate the “e” here). Señor, (regresar) regrese aquí a las ocho, por favor. (Note that these forms do NOT have an accent on the end, so they should not sound at all like regresé, which means I returned in the past…completely different!!) Señora, (dar) déme el cambio en dólares, por favor. Señor, (comer) coma el pan, por favor. Most of the irregular forms come from the irregular first person “yo” forms in the present tense. Venga (from venir, yo vengo). Ponga (from poner, yo pongo), Tenga (from tener, yo tengo), Diga (from decir, yo digo). But do notice that these are all affirmative commands, or telling someone positively to do something. In negative commands, things are a bit different. The easiest ones are the “usted” commands. Use the same verb, but remember to put those pesky little pronouns in front. +Hágalo, por favor. -No lo haga, por favor. +Hábleme en español. No me hable en inglés. +Olvídelo. -No lo olvide. The “tú” negative commands are a little trickier. They use a completely different verb form than the positive commands. But they’re easy – just tack an “s” on to your switchy usted ending. +Hazlo ahora, Pablito. -No lo hagas más tarde. +Háblame en 5 minutos, Pablo. -No me hables ahora. Make a game of thinking of a negative command every time you make an affirmative command.